Sources and Methods

Sources and methods often differ between countries, a short description for each country is provided below. For more information please contact our regional partner.


The data for Belgium are based on health surveys organised by Sciensano (Belgian Institute of Health) since 1997. These health surveys have been used in the European health interview survey (EHIS), which makes the data obtained comparable to those obtained in the other Member States of the European Union. The data showed on the EHA come from the most recent health survey organised in 2018. Vital statistics (population data, births, deaths, recurrent data made available by Statbel, the Belgian Statistical Office) were calculated using the interactive SPMA tool (Standardized Procedures for Mortality Analysis) developed by Sciensano.


The German data are based on the following data sources:

  • Data collected by Landeszentrum Gesundheit Nordrhein Westfalen (link indikatoren kreise) based on 2 different concepts:
    • The data provided for each Kreis in NRW are mainly register data. The sources are the official statistics of hospital cases, mortality, demography, employment and social service and economie. (link indikatoren kreise)
    • Other indicators used here, are results of the NRW-Health Survey. This representative survey is based on a questionaire filled in by ~ 2000 inhabitants of NRW. This repetive survey askes every year for informations about the health situation and attitudes of the NRW-population. The NRW-Health-Survey is done by telephone interviews. (link NRW-Gesundheitssurvey)
  • The Deutscher Alterssurvey (DEAS) is done by the Deutsches Zentrum für Altersfragen ( The German Ageing Survey (DEAS) is a long-term study sponsored by the Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth (BMFSFJ) and conducted by the German Centre for Ageing Questions (DZA) on the change in life situations and ageing processes of people in the second half of life. The survey is based on nationwide representative cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys of several thousand participants aged 40 and over. The last survey took place in 2017.
  • Data collected by Information und Technik Nordrhein Westfalen (IT.NRW) the statistic institution of north rhine westfalia. It collects, processed and contributes data of nearly every area of life (e.g. health, demography, employment, economie). A big amount of data provided by Landeszentrum Gesundheit Nordrhein Westfalen is delivered by IT. NRW. The data are mainly register data repetive collected each year. Aditionally IT.NRW provides the data of the micro census for NRW. The micro census is a representative survey based on interviews done in 80 000 households. Normally the results are representative for NRW, but some indicators are also usable on Kreis level. (

The Netherlands

The Dutch data is based on a national health monitor (Gezondheidsmonitor volwassenen & ouderen). The study was conducted in the form of a survey amongst adults (17-64 year olds) and elderly (65+). The response rate in 2016 was approximately 30% among adults and 50% among the elderly, resulting in a total of almost 40.000 respondents in South-Limburg and 23.000 in North-Limburg.

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